Cipro, XR (ciprofloxacin) vs. Keflex (cephalexin) differences
- Cipro (ciprofloxacin) and Keflex (cephalexin) are antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections.
- Keflex and Cipro are in different drug classes. Keflex is a cephalosporin antibiotic, and Cipro is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic.
- Cipro and Keflex are used to treat middle ear, skin, bone, and urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by certain bacteria.
- Cipro also treats acute sinusitis, chronic prostatitis, infectious diarrhea, lower respiratory infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, anthrax poisoning, the plague, TB, typhoid fever, cystitis, and bronchiectasis caused by certain bacteria.
- Keflex also treats middle ear and throat infections, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
- Side effects of Keflex and Cipro that are similar include:
- One minor side effect of Cipro that is different from Keflex include restlessness. Examples of serious side effects of fluoroquinolone antibiotics like Cipro are:
What is Cipro? What is Keflex? Are they the same?
Cipro (ciprofloxacin) is a type of fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is used for the treatment of bacterial infections. Cipro stops the multiplication of bacteria by inhibiting the reproduction and repair of their genetic material (DNA). Other fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin (Levaquin), ofloxacin (Floxin), gatifloxacin (Tequin), norfloxacin (Noroxin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), and trovafloxacin (Trovan).
Keflex (cephalexin) belongs to a class of antibiotics called cephalosporins. They are similar to penicillin in action and side effects. They stop or slow the growth of bacterial cells by preventing bacteria from forming and multiplying in the cell wall that surrounds each cell (called cell wall synthesis), which can lead to the destruction of the cell wall. The cell wall protects bacteria from the external environment and keeps the contents of the cell together, and without a cell wall, bacteria are not able to survive. Bacteria that are susceptible to cephalexin include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, E. coli, and several others.
What are the uses for Cipro and Keflex?
Doctors and other healthcare professionals prescribe Cipro and Cipro XR to treat bacterial infections, for example:
- Skin infections
- Lung or airway Infections, for example, TB (tuberculosis), pneumonic and septicemic plague due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis), lower respiratory tract infections, and chronic bronchitis)
- Bone infections
- Joint infections
- Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by certain bacteria such as E. coli.
- Infectious diarrheas caused by E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Shigella bacteria.
- Anthrax patients with fever and low white blood cell counts, and intra-abdominal infections.
- Typhoid fever
- Cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Acute uncomplicated cystitis
Are there infections that should not be treated with Cipro?
Because of serious side effects associate with fluoroquinolones they should not be used for treating certain infections unless there are no other alternatives, and include:
- Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI)
- Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis
- Acute bacterial sinusitis
Cephalexin is used to treat infections caused by bacteria that are susceptible to the effects of cephalexin. Common infections treated with cephalexin include:
- Middle ear infections (otitis media)
- Throat infections
- Urinary tract (UTIs)
- Bone infections
Bowel regularity means a bowel movement every day.
What are the differences in the side effects of Cipro vs. Keflex?
Cipro side effects
The most common side effects of Cipro and Cipro XR include:
Serious side effects adverse reactions of Cipro
Cipro and Cipro XR as well as other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics has been associated with tendonitis and even tendon rupture, particularly the Achilles tendon. Some doctors and other medical professionals recommend that their patients discontinue vigorous exercise while they are taking fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
Anaphylaxis, or shock, is a rare allergic reaction to this drug. This allergic reaction is a medical emergency and you are experiencing these symptoms seek medical immediately. Symptoms of shock include:
Other possible serious side effects of Cipro and Cipro XR include:
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Central nervous system effects (CNS), for example, toxic psychosis, nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares, paranoia, dizziness, tremors, depression, and hallucinations.
- Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)
- Abnormal heart beats
- Liver dysfunction
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome
- Allergic pneumonitis
- Interstitial nephritis
- Acute kidney failure
- Liver failure
- Cardiac arrest
- Respiratory failure
Cipro, Cipro XR should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age, as safe use in these patients has not been established.
Many antibiotics, including Cipro, Cipro XR, can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of a bacterium responsible for the development of inflammation of the colon, (C. difficile or pseudomembranous colitis). Patients who develop signs and symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis, for example, diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock after starting Cipro or Cipro XR should contact their doctor immediately.
Keflex side effects
The most common side effects of cephalexin include:
People who are allergic to penicillin may also be allergic to cephalexin. Serious but rare reactions include seizures, severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis), and low platelet or red blood cell count.
Cephalexin, like almost all antibiotics, may cause mild or severe cases of pseudomembranous colitis, a mild to severe inflammation of the colon. Antibiotics, including cephalexin alter the types of bacteria in the colon and permit overgrowth of a bacterium called Clostridium difficile (C. diff.). Studies indicate that toxins produced by C. difficile are a primary cause of pseudomembranous colitis.
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What are the differences in the strengths and dosages of Cipro vs. Keflex?
- For most infections the recommended oral dose for adults is 250-750 mg (immediate release tablets) every 12 hours or 500-1000 mg (extended release tablets) every 24 hours.
- The usual intravenous dose is 200-400 mg every 8-12 hours.
Cipro doses are available in strengths as:
- Tablets: 250, 500, and 750 mg.
- Tablets extended release (XR): 500 and 1000 mg.
- Microcapsules for suspension: 250 mg/5 ml, 500 mg/5 ml.
- Injection or Injection concentrate: 200 mg/100 ml, 200 mg/20 mg, 400 mg/200 ml, 400 mg/40 ml.
- The dose of cephalexin for adults is 1 to 4 grams in divided doses.
- The usual adult dose is 250 mg every 6 hours.
- Some infections may be treated with 500 mg every 12 hours.
- Children are treated with 25-100 mg/kg/day in divided doses.
- The dosing interval may be every 6 or 12 hours depending on the type and seriousness of the infection.
Keflex doses are available in strengths as:
- Tablets of 250 and 500 mg.
- Capsules: 250, 500, and 750 mg.
- Powder for Suspension: 125 and 250 mg/5 ml.
What drugs interact with Cipro and Keflex?
Cipro drug interactions
- Ciprofloxacin administered together with theophylline (Respbid, Slo-Bid, Theo-24, Theolair) can lead to elevated, toxic blood levels of theophylline. Theophylline is used to open airways in the treatment of asthma. Toxic levels of theophylline can lead to seizures, and disturbances in heart rhythm. If concurrent use of ciprofloxacin and theophylline cannot be avoided, frequent blood tests to monitor theophylline blood levels are recommended.
- Ciprofloxacin increases the effect of tizanidine (Zanaflex) that is used to treat muscle spasticity. Therefore, the two drugs should not be combined.
- Iron salts (for example, ferrous sulfate) may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin because of formation of a ciprofloxacin-iron complex that is not absorbable. Antacids also may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. If patients are receiving iron salts or antacids and ciprofloxacin, the ciprofloxacin should be given two hours before or six hours after the iron salt or antacid.
- Ciprofloxacin may increase the blood thinning effect of warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven). The reason for this is unknown. Anticoagulant activity should be monitored after starting or stopping ciprofloxacin.
- Sevelamer (Renagel) may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin and possibly reduce the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin. Milk and orange juice also may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin, as with iron and antacids, should be given two hours before or six hours after milk or orange juice.
- Administration of ciprofloxacin with diabetic medications (for example glyburide [Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab]) may lead to severe low blood glucose.
- Ciprofloxacin may increase blood concentrations of sildenafil (Viagra) that is used for treating erectile dysfunction. This combination should be avoided if possible.
- Patients taking Cipro, Cipro XR can develop sensitivity of the skin to direct sunlight (photosensitivity) and should avoid exposure to sunlight or use sunblock.
- Fluoroquinolones worsen low blood glucose levels when combined with sulfonylureas, for example, glyburide (Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab).
Keflex drug interactions
Is it safe to take Cipro or Keflex if I am pregnant or breastfeeding?
Doctors suggest that should not use this antibiotic if you are pregnant or breastfeeding because they do not know if it is safe.