What is Cipro? How does it work (mechanism of action)?
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic that is used to treat bacterial infections. It stops the multiplication of bacteria by inhibiting the reproduction and repair of their genetic material (DNA). The FDA approved ciprofloxacin in October 1987.
Ciprofloxacin belongs to the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics. Examples of other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class includes:
- levofloxacin (Levaquin)
- ofloxacin (Floxin)
- gatifloxacin (Tequin)
- norfloxacin (Noroxin)
- moxifloxacin (Avelox)
- trovafloxacin (Trovan)
What is Cipro used for?
Doctors and other medical healthcare professionals prescribe Cipro and Cipro XR to treat bacterial infections, for example:
- Skin infections
- Lung or airway Infections, for example, TB (tuberculosis), pneumonic and septicemic plague due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis), lower respiratory tract infections, and chronic bronchitis)
- Bone infections
- Joint infections
- Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by certain bacteria such as E. coli.
- Infectious diarrheas caused by E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Shigella bacteria.
- Anthrax patients with fever and low white blood cell counts, and intra-abdominal infections.
- Typhoid fever
- Cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Acute uncomplicated cystitis
Bowel regularity means a bowel movement every day.
What infections should not be treated with Cipro?
Because of serious side effects associate with fluoroquinolones they should not be used for treating certain infections unless there are no other alternatives, and include:
- Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI)
- Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis
- Acute bacterial sinusitis
Warning: Serious side effects adverse reactions of Cipro
Cipro and Cipro XR as well as other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics has been associated with tendonitis and even tendon rupture, particularly the Achilles tendon. Some doctors and other medical professionals recommend that their patients discontinue vigorous exercise while they are taking fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
What are the side effects Cirpo?
The most common side effects of Cipro, Cipro XR are:
Symptoms of shock include:
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What are the serious side effects and adverse events of Cirpo?
Possible serious side effects of Cipro, Cipro XR include:
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Central nervous system effects (CNS), for example, toxic psychosis, nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares, paranoia, dizziness, tremors, depression, and hallucinations.
- Clostridiumdifficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)
- Abnormal heart beats
- Liver dysfunction
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome
- Allergic pneumonitis
- Interstitial nephritis
- Acute kidney failure
- Liver failure
Other serious side effects and adverse events of Cipro, Cipro XR include:
- Cipro, Cipro XR should be used with caution in patients with central nervous system diseases such as seizures, because rare seizures have been reported in patients receiving Cipro, Cipro XR.
- Cipro, Cipro XR should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age, as safe use in these patients has not been established.
- Many antibiotics, including Cipro, Cipro XR, can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of a bacterium responsible for the development of inflammation of the colon, (C. difficile or pseudomembranous colitis). Patients who develop signs of pseudomembranous colitis after starting Cipro, Cipro XR (diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock) should contact their doctor immediately.
- Cardiac arrest
- Respiratory failure
What is the dosage for Cipro?
- For most infections the recommended oral dose for adults is 250-750 mg (immediate release tablets) every 12 hours or 500-1000 mg (extended release tablets) every 24 hours.
- The usual intravenous dose is 200-400 mg every 8-12 hours.
- Tablets: 250, 500, and 750 mg.
- Tablets extended release (XR): 500 and 1000 mg.
- Microcapsules for suspension: 250 mg/5 ml, 500 mg/5 ml.
- Injection or Injection concentrate: 200 mg/100 ml, 200 mg/20 mg, 400 mg/200 ml, 400 mg/40 ml.
What drugs, foods, or supplements interact with Cipro?
- Ciprofloxacin administered together with theophylline (Respbid, Slo-Bid, Theo-24, Theolair) can lead to elevated, toxic blood levels of theophylline. Theophylline is used to open airways in the treatment of asthma. Toxic levels of theophylline can lead to seizures, and disturbances in heart rhythm. If concurrent use of ciprofloxacin and theophylline cannot be avoided, frequent blood tests to monitor theophylline blood levels are recommended.
- Ciprofloxacin increases the effect of tizanidine (Zanaflex) that is used to treat muscle spasticity. Therefore, the two drugs should not be combined.
- Iron salts (for example, ferrous sulfate) may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin because of formation of a ciprofloxacin-iron complex that is not absorbable. Antacids also may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. If patients are receiving iron salts or antacids and ciprofloxacin, the ciprofloxacin should be given two hours before or six hours after the iron salt or antacid.
- Ciprofloxacin may increase the blood thinning effect of warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven). The reason for this is unknown. Anticoagulant activity should be monitored after starting or stopping ciprofloxacin.
- Sevelamer (Renagel) may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin and possibly reduce the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin. Milk and orange juice also may reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin, as with iron and antacids, should be given two hours before or six hours after milk or orange juice.
- Administration of ciprofloxacin with diabetic medications (for example glyburide [Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab]) may lead to severe low blood glucose.
- Ciprofloxacin may increase blood concentrations of sildenafil (Viagra) that is used for treating erectile dysfunction. This combination should be avoided if possible.
- Patients taking Cipro, Cipro XR can develop sensitivity of the skin to direct sunlight (photosensitivity) and should avoid exposure to sunlight or use sunblock.
- Fluoroquinolones worsen low blood glucose levels when combined with sulfonylureas, for example, glyburide (Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab).
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What else should I know about Cirpo?
- Storage of Cirpo:
- Tablets should be stored below 30 C (86 F).
- Extended release tablets should be stored between 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F).
- Microcapsules should be stored below 25 C (77 F) and protected from freezing. Injections should be stored between 5 C to 30 C (41 F to 86 F) and prevented from freezing.
- You need a prescription for Cipro from you doctor or other healthcare professional.
- Ciprofloxacin is the generic name for Cipro and Cipro XR.
- Cipro is available in generic form.