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Thiazide Diuretics: List, Side Effects & Dosage

What are thiazide diuretics, and how do they work?

Thiazide diuretics (water pills) are medications that are used to treat high
blood pressure (hypertension) and reduce fluid accumulation in the body. They
work by reducing the ability of the kidneys to reabsorb salt and water from the
urine and into the body thereby increasing the production and output of urine
(diuresis).

What are some examples thiazide diuretics?

For what conditions are thiazide diuretics used?

Thiazide diuretics are used to treat high blood pressure and
congestive heart
failure as well as the accumulation of fluid and swelling (edema) of the body
caused by conditions such as
heart failure,
cirrhosis,
chronic kidney
failure,
corticosteroid medications, and nephrotic syndrome.

What are the side effects of thiazide diuretics?

Side effects of thiazide diuretics are dose related and include:

Other side effects and adverse reactions are:

  • An increased sensitivity to sunlight (prolonged sun exposure should be avoided)
  • Owing to their ability to
    increase the production of urine, these drugs may lower levels in the body of
    potassium and magnesium which also are present in urine.
  • Thiazide diuretics may increase uric acid levels in blood.
  • Like other antihypertensive medications, thiazides cause sexual dysfunction.




QUESTION

Salt and sodium are the same.
See Answer

Are there any differences among the thiazide diuretics?

Thiazide diuretics are similar in effectiveness and usually are not effective in people with severe renal impairment.

With which drugs do thiazide diuretics interact?

Thiazide diuretics can lower potassium and magnesium blood levels since they
are both eliminated in urine.
Low levels of potassium and magnesium in the blood
can result in abnormal
heart rhythms, particularly in those who are also taking
digoxin (Lanoxin)
in addition to a thiazide. Thiazide diuretics can increase the risk of lithium
(Eskalith,
Lithobid)
toxicity by reducing the kidney's ability to eliminate lithium in the urine.

Drugs known as
nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as
ibuprofen (Motrin),
naproxen (Naprosyn),
and nabumetone (Relafen)
can reduce the effectiveness of thiazide diuretics in lowering blood pressure
because they may reduce the ability of the kidneys to make urine, particularly
in patients who have reduced kidney function.

People who have
diabetes
may have increased blood sugar levels when taking thiazide diuretics.

It is not
recommended to use thiazide diuretics with dofetilide (Tikosyn), a drug used for
treating abnormal heart rhythms, as this may increase the blood levels of
dofetilide (Tikosyn) and cause abnormal heart rhythms. Thiazide diuretics can
reduce how the body responds to norepinephrine and render norepinephrine less
effective.

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