What is propranolol? What are the uses for propranolol?
Propranolol is a beta-adrenergic blocking agent that is used for treating high blood pressure, heart pain (angina), abnormal rhythms of the heart, and some neurologic conditions. Examples of other beta-adrenergic blockers include metoprolol (Lopressor), atenolol (Tenormin), and timolol (Blocadren).
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are produced and released by nerves in order to communicate with each other. The released neurotransmitters attach to receptors on other cells and induce changes within the receptor-containing cells. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that is used by the sympathetic nervous system, a portion of the involuntary nervous system. Nerves of the sympathetic nervous system release norepinephrine that binds to beta receptors on other cells. Propranolol inhibits the sympathetic nervous system by blocking the beta receptors on the nerves of the sympathetic system. Since stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system is responsible for increasing the rate with which the heart beats, by blocking the action of these nerves propranolol reduces the heart rate and is useful in treating abnormally rapid heart rhythms.
Propranolol also reduces the force of contraction of heart muscle and thereby lowers blood pressure. By reducing the heart rate and the force of muscle contraction, propranolol reduces the need for oxygen by heart muscle. Since heart pain (angina pectoris) occurs when oxygen demand of the heart muscle exceeds the supply of oxygen, propranolol, by reducing the demand for oxygen, is helpful in treating heart pain. The FDA approved propranolol in November 1967.
What brand names are available for propranolol?
Hemangeol, Inderal, Inderal XL, Inderal LA, Innopran XL
Is propranolol available as a generic drug?
GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes
Do I need a prescription for propranolol?
What are the side effects of propranolol?
Common side effects are:
- abdominal cramps,
- memory loss,
- slow heart rate,
- low blood pressure,
- cold extremities,
- sore throat, and
- shortness of breath or wheezing.
Propranolol can aggravate breathing
difficulties in patients with asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. In
patients with existing slow heart rates (bradycardias) and heart blocks (defects
in the electrical conduction of the heart), propranolol can cause dangerously
slow heart rates, and even shock. Propranolol reduces the force of heart muscle
contraction and can aggravate symptoms of heart failure.
In patients with
coronary artery disease, abruptly stopping propranolol can suddenly worsen
angina, and occasionally precipitate
heart attacks. If it is necessary to
discontinue propranolol, its dosage should be reduced gradually over several
Salt and sodium are the same.
What is the dosage for propranolol?
The recommended dose for hypertension using short acting formulations
is 80-240 mg twice daily. The maximum dose is 640 mg daily.
The usual dose using
long acting formulations is 80-160 mg daily.
The recommended dose for chest pain
is 80-320 mg daily using short acting formulations and 80-160 mg daily using
long acting formulations.
The usual dose for treatment of abnormal heart rhythms
is 10-30 mg 3-4 times daily of short acting formulations.
The recommended dose
for preventing migraines is 80-240 mg daily.
Which drugs or supplements interact with propranolol?
Calcium channel blockers and digoxin (Lanoxin) can lower blood pressure and heart rate to dangerous levels when administered together with propranolol. Propranolol can mask the early warning symptoms of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and should be used with caution in patients receiving treatment for diabetes. Propranolol reduces the metabolism of thioridazine (Mellaril), increasing the concentration of thioridazine in the body and potentially causing abnormal heartbeats.
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Is propranolol safe to take while pregnant or breastfeeding?
Safe use during pregnancy has not been established. Growth retardation and congenital abnormalities have been reported in infants whose mothers received propranolol during pregnancy. Infants whose mothers received propranolol during labor have exhibited slow heart rate, hypoglycemia, and/or respiratory depression.
What else should I know about propranolol?
What preparations of propranolol are available?
Tablets: 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg. Capsules: 60, 80, 120, and
160 mg. Oral Solution: 20 mg/5 ml, Injection: 1 mg/ml
STORAGE: Tablets and capsules should be stored at room temperature, 15 to 30 C
(59 to 86 F), in a tightly closed container.